Nutrition And Fitness
ACL Injuries (Care of the Young Athlete)
The ACL is the ligament that connects the femur
(thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) inside the knee
joint. Ligaments are tough, non-stretchable fibers
that hold bones together. The ACL, along with the posterior
cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament
(MCL), and menisci (cartilages), helps keep the knee stable
and helps protect the knee from shifting, rotating, and
hyperextending during running, jumping, or landing.
Burners and Stingers
Burners and stingers are intense pains that occur
when the nerves that run from the neck to the arm
are stretched or compressed. This typically occurs
in contact or collision sports where the shoulder may be
pushed backward or the head and neck is forcibly pushed
to the side. Burners are most common in football players
but are also common in those who participate in hockey,
wrestling, lacrosse, and diving. The term Athletes who have just sustained a burner will typically
hold their arm limply at their sides or be observed shaking
their arm to get rid of the tingling or burning sensation. A
burning or stinging pain runs from the neck and shoulder
down the arm even into the hand. In addition to the
burning pain, it may feel like the arm has fallen asleep or
like ‚??pins and needles.‚?Ě There may also be weakness in the
shoulder and arm. Neck pain and spasm typically follow an
injury that leads to a burner, but pain over the bones in the
neck, pain radiating to both arms, or pain radiating to the
legs suggests a possible spinal cord injury.
PLAIN LANGUAGE: Calcium is an essential mineral, and is especially important for growing children. Foods rich in calcium include dairy products, green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals, legumes, and others. This handout contains information about sources of calcium, how to read food labels, and other tips for parents to make sure that their children develop strong bones.
Calcium and You
In fact, your body's
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Nearly half of the children in the United States are suffering from insufficient calcium, which can lead to diseases affecting their bone development. Children should have a calcium rich diet of low fat milk and dairy, or other foods such as broccoli or tofu.
Caring for Your Child's Teeth
PLAIN LANGUAGE: Parents should begin oral care for their children before they develop teeth. Age-specific dental care steps are provided in this handout, in addition to information about cavities, fluoride, and thumbsucking.
Common Feed Patterns in Nursing
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Newborns often have their own style when it comes to nursing. There are many different attitudes that infants may exhibit when breastfeeding and identifying your child's eating patterns will allow you to better understand when they are hungry.
Constipation and Your Child
Bowel patterns vary from child to child just as they do in adults. What's normal for your child may be different from what's normal for another child. Most children have bowel movements 1 or 2 times a day. Other children may go 2 to 3 days or longer before passing a normal stool. If your child doesn't have daily bowel movements, you may worry that she is constipated. But if she is healthy and has normal stools without discomfort or pain, this may be her normal bowel pattern.
Cooking with Kids
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: One of the best ways to teach your children how to make healthy food choices is to include them in the cooking process. This teaches them healthy habits and provides them with skills they can use for the rest of their lives. Always supervise your children in the kitchen and teach them proper safety practices.
Core Exercises (Care of the Young Athlete)
Core exercises strengthen the muscles of the spine,
abdomen, and pelvis. These muscles support all
physical activity. Core exercises should not be painful. When pain
develops, exercises may need to be modified or exercises
even may need to be stopped. In some cases, it may be
necessary to obtain further professional consultation if
Diarrhea and Dehydration
Diarrhea is the passage of watery stools. Most diarrhea in children is caused by one of several diarrhea-causing viruses and gets better by itself within a week. Although there can be many causes of diarrhea, the treatment suggested here is appropriate for acute illness (sudden onset, short lasting), which occurs most commonly.
Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia
But for people with an eating disorder, it brings about very different feelings. They become
Encourage Your Child to Be Physically Active
Today's youth are less active and more overweight than any previous generation. Children on average spend nearly 3 hours a day watching TV.
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Children with exercise induced asthma (EIA) should take special precautions in order to exercise safely. These children should warm up slowly and pace themselves. Teach your children to monitor their symptoms in order to better know their limits.
Feeding Kids Right Isn't Always Easy: Tips for Preventing Food Hassles
Happy encounters with food at any age help set the stage for sensible eating habits throughout life. When adults provide and promote nutritious foods in a calm and positive setting, children will be more willing to make healthy food choices. The following are 8 important mealtime tips to keep in mind:
First Steps to a Healthy Smile
Tooth decay is the number-one dental problem among preschoolers, but it can be prevented. Starting children with good dental habits from an early age will help them grow up with healthy smiles. The following is important information about how to care for your child's teeth from birth to 24 months of age and beyond. Tooth decay can develop as soon as the first tooth appears. It's important to care for your child's baby teeth because they act as placeholders for adult teeth. If baby teeth are lost too early, the teeth that are left may move and not leave any room for the adult teeth to come in. And tooth decay in baby teeth can be painful and cause health problems like infections, which can at times be life-threatening. It can also lead to teasing and speech development problems.
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Adults who suffer from food allergies are likely to have children who do as well. Breastfeeding and restricting solid foods from your baby until they are 4-6 months old are a few ways you can prevent the development of food allergies in your child.
Food Allergies and Your Child
A food allergy happens when the body reacts against harmless proteins found in
foods. The reaction usually happens shortly after a food is eaten. Food allergy reactions can vary from mild to severe. Because many symptoms and illnesses could be wrongly blamed on "food allergies," it is important for parents to know the usual symptoms. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about food allergies
and how to recognize and treat the symptoms. There is also important
information about how to keep your child safe and healthy at home and in school
if he has a food allergy.
Football (Care of the Young Athlete)
Football is a fast-paced, aggressive, contact team sport that is very popular among America's youth. Football programs exist for players as young as 6 years all the way through high school, college, and professional. Injuries are common because of the large number of athletes participating. However, the risk of injuries can be reduced. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent football injuries. Also included is an overview of common football injuries.
Get Fit, Stay Healthy
Being fit means you're in Any type of regular, physical activity can
Getting Enough Calcium
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Calcium is an important part of any daily diet. Lack of calcium can lead to weak bones and other health problems later in life. Pediatricians should screen children to access their daily calcium consumption at ages 2 or 3, 8 or 9, and yearly in the teen and preteen years.
Good Health Before Pregnancy
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: The first steps to ensuring your baby's good health can start before you get pregnant. Ask your doctor about any health problems that you have that may affect your baby's health. Make sure your immunizations are up to date and get tested for HIV before you get pregnant.
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It is important to encourage good posture from a young age so that it does not lead to chronic back problems later in life. Children may slouch for a variety of reasons.
Growing Up Healthy: Fat, Cholesterol and More
Many Americans consume too many calories and too much fat, especially saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. These eating patterns are one cause of America's high rates of obesity and heart disease. As a parent or caregiver, you can help your child develop eating and physical activity habits to stay healthy now—and throughout life. Read on to learn more about healthy eating and physical activity guidelines for healthy children
ages 2 years and older. For specific food and nutrition advice, talk with your child's doctor or
a registered dietitian.
Healthy Eating for School-Age Kids
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: A healthy diet is extremely important to your child's health and development. Be sure to serve them low fat milk and cheese, appropriate amounts of potassium, and lean meats. Overall, try to eliminate excessive fat in their diet whenever possible.
Healthy Fast Foods
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Fast foods advertisements appeal to children and can be very tempting for a quick meal. If you do choose fast food, be sure to choose healthier options whenever they are available.
How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby
Baby teeth are important. If baby teeth are lost too early, the teeth that are left may move and not leave any room for the adult teeth to come in. Also, if tooth decay is not prevented it can be costly to treat, cause pain, and lead to life-threatening infections. Tooth decay (early childhood caries) is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood. Tooth decay may also be called
Importance of Breakfast, The
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and a good breakfast will allow kids to maintain better focus throughout their day. Breakfast can also decrease the risk of unhealthy weight gain, because it is healthier to spread food consumption throughout the day rather than eating a couple of big meals.
Iron Deficiency and Anemia
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: A diet low in iron can lead to anemia, which can make your child pale, irritable, or cause them to have a lack of energy. There are two types of iron, one found in meats and one found in beans and other vegetables. Citrus foods should be eaten in combination with vegetarian iron-rich foods to increase iron absorption.
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Type 1 diabetes is genetic and occurs when the pancreas stops producing insulin. Once diagnosed, children will have to manage their condition for the rest of their lives. If managed poorly type 1 diabetes can lead to kidney failure or circulation problems.
Lacrosse (Care of the Young Athlete)
Lacrosse is one of the fastest-growing sports in the United States. It's both a contact (boys) and noncontact (girls) sport. Injuries differ between the contact game of boys' lacrosse (body contact and stick checking allowed) and the noncontact game of girls'¬†lacrosse. Game and practice injuries include injuries to the knee, ankle, wrist/hand, and face/head. Many injuries occur because of contact with the stick, ball, or another player, while some injuries happen because of overuse. Most lacrosse injuries are sprains/strains or contusions.
Lactose Intolerance and Your Child
After drinking milk or eating ice cream, does your child have stomach cramps or get diarrhea? If so, your child may have lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance can make your child quite uncomfortable, but small changes in your child's diet may help treat the problem.
Martial Arts (Care of the Young Athlete)
More than 6 million children in the United States
participate in martial arts. Martial arts are known
to improve social skills, discipline, and respect
in children. Children can also improve their abilities to
concentrate and focus on activities, as well as bettering
their motor skills and self-confidence. Martial arts can be
fun and beneficial at any age. While the martial arts are relatively safe, injuries can
happen because there is physical contact between opponents.
The following is information from the American Academy
of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent martial art
injuries. Also included is an overview of martial arts forms.
Obesity and High Blood Pressure
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Obesity and resulting high blood pressure have been on the rise in children in the United States. These can cause damage to the heart and the circulatory system. Screening for high blood pressure should begin at age three. If a child is found to have high blood pressure, certain lifestyle changes can work to reduce this.
Osgood-Schlatter is a common condition in young athletes that refers to irritation of a growth plate at the knee. It typically occurs in active teens during their growth spurt and resolves after the bone stops growing. Children have growth plates called
Parent's Guide to Complementary and Integrative Medicine, A
Where do you turn for help when your child gets sick? You may call your child's doctor or another health professional. You might call your mom or friend for advice. You may look on the Internet or in a magazine or¬†book. While most children in North America receive conventional medicine when they are sick, many parents want to know about natural therapies too.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most
common causes of knee pain in young athletes.
The condition is an overuse injury that results from
activities that cause pressure or friction on the cartilage
behind the kneecap. Patellofemoral pain syndrome occurs
frequently in athletes who participate in sports that involve
running, jumping, or squatting. The kneecap functions as a shield to protect the front
of the knee. As a result, direct impact to the kneecap can
cause damage to the cartilage that lines the back surface
of the kneecap. In addition, the kneecap functions as a
fulcrum to help the quadriceps (thigh muscles) straighten
the knee. In this capacity, there is pressure on this same
cartilage behind the kneecap that is related to how hard
the quadriceps are contracting (F
Pesticides in the Food Supply
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Farmers may use pesticides to improve the growth of their crops, so be sure to wash or peel your fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide residue.
Preventing Obesity in Teens
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Obesity is a serious problem for teens and, as a result, many suffer from low self esteem. Low calorie diets are not a good idea for growing teens. Instead they should work to combine healthy eating habits and increased physical activity.
Right From the Start: ABCs of Good Nutrition for Young Children
Proper nutrition begins at the supermarket with the foods you buy and continues at home as you prepare and serve meals. Giving your child a healthy start with good eating habits promotes his or her lifelong health. Read on about how you can set the stage for healthy eating habits and food choices for your young child. For specific advice about food and nutrition for your child, talk with your child's doctor or a registered dietitian.
Sever's Disease (Care of the Young Athlete)
The calcaneal apophysis is a growth center where the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia attach
to the heel. It first appears in children aged 7 to
8 years. By ages 12 to 14 years the growth center matures and fuses to the heel bone. Injuries can occur from excessive tension on the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia, or from direct impact on the heel. Excessive stress on this growth center can cause irritation of the heel, also called Sever‚??s disease.
Skin Conditions and Sports Participation (Care of the Young Athlete)
Most skin conditions do not affect sports participation. As a general rule, young people with skin conditions should be allowed to participate in sports as long as there is no risk of blood
or body fluid coming into contact with other athletes.
Skin conditions that may affect participation can be divided into temporary and long-term conditions. Temporary skin conditions that may affect sports activities include
Soccer (Care of the Young Athlete)
Soccer (known as football outside the United States)
is one of the most popular team sports in the world.
Soccer also can be a way to encourage children to
be physically active while they learn about teamwork and
sportsmanship. With the growing popularity of soccer comes a greater
number of injuries. However, the risk of injury can be
reduced. This publication was written by the American
Academy of Pediatrics to provide information about how
to prevent soccer injuries. It includes a list of common
Sports and Your Child
Whether on a court, in a pool, on a field, or in a gym, more children than ever are competing in sports. Sports help boys and girls keep their bodies fit and feel good about themselves. However, there are some important issues that parents need to be aware of if¬†their children participate in organized sports. The following are answers to common questions parents have about sports and children. Talk with your child's doctor if you have other questions or concerns.
Starting Solid Foods
Until now, your baby's diet has been made
up of breast milk and/or formula. But once your baby reaches 4 to 6 months of age, you can begin adding solid foods. Read on to learn more about introducing solid foods. Most babies are ready to eat solid foods at 4 to 6¬†months of age. Before this age, instead of swallowing the food, babies push their tongues against the spoon or food. This tongue-pushing reflex is necessary when they are breastfeeding or drinking from a bottle. Most babies stop doing this at about 4 months of age. Energy needs of babies begin to increase around this age as well, making this a good time to introduce solids.
Stress Fractures (Care of the Young Athlete)
Stress fracture (also called a fatigue fracture) is
a weakening or thin crack in a bone caused by
repetitive stress on the bone. A stress fracture is an
overuse injury. It is different from a fracture that occurs
after a traumatic event, such as a fall. Stress fractures are
more common in endurance athletes or athletes who
perform repetitive, high-impact activities. With sufficient levels of stress to a bone, anyone can
develop a stress fracture. However, there are additional risk
factors related to the individual and to the training pattern
that can further increase the risk of developing a stress
Teen Acne and Diet
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: If your teen suffers from acne, they may blame the food they eat, but there is no link between food and acne. Stress, on the other hand, can trigger acne, and often food intake can be affected by stress so it may be easy to mistake the cause of the acne.
Understanding Food Labels
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Reading and understanding food labels is a great step toward planning a healthy diet for your family. Pay attention to fat content and be sure to look at portion sizes when comparing different products. Be aware that the portion sizes listed may not be the same as the portions your family eats.
Use of Ice and Heat (Care of the Young Athlete)
Ice and heat are often used in treating injuries. Icing may be used along with compression, elevation, bracing, and/or support when treating acute injuries.
Weaning to a Cup
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Getting your child to give up their bottle may be difficult, but it is important to wean your child off their bottle by age 18 months. Begin weaning at 1 year and replace a cup for a bottle in feeding in stages to make the transition smoother.
What is the BMI Index?
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a ratio of weight to height used to better recognize when overweight passes over into obesity. Measure your child's BMI every year to better prevent obesity.
What's to Eat? Healthy Foods for Hungry Children
Feeding kids can be challenging because kids can be very picky eaters. Read on for more information about how to please fussy eaters and ideas for healthier fast-food choices. For specific food and nutrition advice, talk with your child's doctor or a registered dietitian. The amount of food and number of servings children need daily from each food group depends on their age and how active they are. Some parents worry because young children seem to eat small amounts of food, especially when compared with adult portions. Don't worry about how little a child eats. A child who is growing well is getting enough to
eat. If you are concerned, talk with your child's doctor.
When Babies Fall Asleep During Feedings
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It's natural to let your baby fall asleep while nursing from a bottle, but this is a tricky practice. This can lead your child to associate feeding with sleeping and lead them to feel that they cannot fall asleep any other way.
Your Child's Growth: Developmental Milestones
Watching a young child grow is a wonderful and unique experience for a parent. Learning to sit up, walk, and talk are some of the major developmental milestones your child will achieve. Although no two children develop at the same rate, they should be able to do certain things at certain ages. This list of milestones by age is a good way to see how your child is doing. Keep in mind that a “No” answer to any of these questions does not mean that there is a problem. However, if you see large differences between your child and what is listed here, talk with your pediatrician.